This was a big moment in the history of sampling when Bob Moog released the Fairlight CMI, which played back samples at different pitches to imitate an instrument (which was a big fucking deal back then). The main sounds that this thing made can be heard in tons of songs (I feel nostalgic just hearing some of these samples by themselves). The video where he demos it is 6 parts long, but definitely worth watching.
You have to wonder if they had any idea how huge this kind of thing would be. Imagine recording one second of sound and reusing it again and again (everybody does this now).